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        確保氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目的安全、密封、滅火性能相關的技術要求與措施探討

        日期:2019-12-12 09:52
        瀏覽次數:773
        摘要:
        確保氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目的安全、密封、滅火性能相關的技術要求與措施探討
        Exploration on Technical Requirements and Measures to Ensure Safety, Sealing and Fire Extinguishing Performance of Gas Fire Extinguishing Product “Belt and Road” Exporting Project 
        朱勁武   周鐵祥
        Zhu Jinwu Zhou Tiexiang
        (北京利達海鑫滅火系統設備有限公司,北京,)
        (Beijing Leader Haixin Gas Fire Extinguishing System Equipment Co., Ltd., Beijing, Contact number: 13910793712)
        一、摘要
        II. Abstract
          氣體滅火系統產品出口項目也叫氣體滅火系統“一帶一路”出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口氣體滅火設備出口。氣體滅火系統是四大傳統的固定滅火系統(噴水、氣體、泡沫、干粉)之一,應用范圍十分廣泛。氣體滅火系統具有以下特點:一是絕緣性能好,可滅電氣火災;二是滅火劑潔凈,滅火過程中和滅火后沒有任何殘留物;三是滅火速度快。氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口)是將氣體滅火系統產品出口到國外,安裝在氣體滅火系統防護區內,實施防火和滅火自動保護,實現對國外重點項目或重要設備的消防保護。則要求氣體滅火系統產品安全可靠、密封性能好、滅火性能好和包裝箱抗碰撞、抗振動、耐高低溫,質量穩定,設計參數正確,并要求安裝施工簡單、快捷。
        The gas fire extinguishing system product exporting project is also called the gas fire extinguishing system “Belt and Road” exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short. Gas fire extinguishing system is one of the four conventional fixed fire extinguishing systems (sprinkling, gas, foam and dry powder) which has been extensively used. Gas fire extinguishing system has the following characteristics: 1) good insulating property that can be used to put out electrical fire; 2) clean fire extinguishing agents that do not produce residue during and after fire extinguishing; 3) fast in putting out fire. The gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting) aims to export gas fire extinguishing system products to foreign countries, have them installed inside gas fire extinguishing system protection areas so that they can perform automatic fire prevention and extinguishing functions to protect key projects and important equipment from fire hazards in foreign countries. It requires that the gas fire extinguishing system products are safe and reliable with good sealing and fire suppression performance. Their packaging boxes have to be shock-resisting, and the products have to be resistant to vibration, high and low temperatures with stable quality and right design parameters and have to be easy and quick to install.  
        二、關鍵詞:
        II. Keywords: 
          氣體滅火系統“一帶一路”出口項目、氣體滅火系統出口項目、氣體滅火系統出口、氣體滅火設備出口。安全可靠、密封性好、滅火性能好。
        Gas fire extinguishing system “Belt and Road” exporting project, gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, gas fire extinguishing system exporting, gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting, safety and reliability, good sealing performance, good fire suppression performance. 
        三、氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目的技術要求與措施
        III. Technical Requirements and Measures for the Gas Fire Extinguishing System Product “Belt and Road” Exporting Project
        1、產品安全可靠
          1. Safety and reliability of products 
        氣體滅火系統產品出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統“一帶一路”出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)所采用的零部件必須安全可靠。盡量使用國內知名度較高的品牌產品,杜絕使用不合格滅火藥劑,短斤少兩和不合格零部件,一切應從用戶的安全出發,才能確保氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)在運輸、安裝、使用中安全可靠。
        Parts and components involved in the gas fire extinguishing system product exporting project (also called the gas fire extinguishing system “Belt and Road” exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short) have to be safe and reliable. Preferably, only those of well-known brands in China are used and it is strictly prohibited to use substandard fire extinguishing agents, be short in weight and use unqualified parts and components. Only by putting the safety of the users at the top priority can we ensure safety and reliability in the transport, installation and application of the products exported through the gas fire extinguishing system “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short).
        (1)壓力容器鋼瓶應采用知名廠家生產的產品,具有國家頒發的壓力容器證書,壓力容器鋼瓶壁厚和重量完全符合設計圖紙和《規范》的要求。絕不能采用壁厚不達標、重量輕、材質不合格、成本低的壓力容器鋼瓶。氣體滅火系統壓力容器鋼瓶中,七氟丙烷鋼瓶*容易弄虛作假,如采用壁厚薄的,不達標的鋼瓶,重量相差20%~30%;或鋼瓶材質不采用壓力容器鋼板,改為采用普通熱軋鋼板,可降低鋼瓶成本10%~30%。
        (1) The pressure cylinders used should be the products of well-known producers with pressure vessel certificates issued by the state, and the thickness of the walls and the weight of the pressure vessels must be in complete compliance with the design drawings and the Specifications. It is strictly prohibited to use pressure cylinders made of steel plates of insufficient thickness and weight and substandard and unreasonably low-cost materials. Among the pressure cylinders used in fire extinguishing systems, the HFC-227ea cylinders are the most likely to involve cheating, including the use of cylinders with thinner-than-required walls, which can reduce the weight by 20% to 30%; or the use of regular hot-rolled steel plates instead of pressure vessel steel plates to reduce cost by 10% to 30%.  
        (2)壓力容器鋼瓶上的容器閥的安全泄放裝置應采用上海華理安全閥專業公司生產的安全膜片,該產品成本一般在20元左右一套,安全性能才能得以保障。而部分廠家均為自己設計、加工安全膜片,產品成本不到2元一套,安全性能很難得到保證。
        (2) Safety diaphragms produced by Shanghai Huali Safety Valves Company should be used on the safety relief devices of the valves of the pressure cylinders in order to ensure safety and each set of the diaphragm costs around 20 yuan. Although the safety diaphragms designed and produced by other producers may cost less than 2 yuan, they may not guarantee safety. 
        (3)氣體滅火系統中各滅火劑容器閥出口均應安裝安全保護帽,使產品在生產、運輸、裝卸、安裝、調試等一系列過程中,即使滅火劑鋼瓶誤啟動,也能確保操作者的人身安全。為降低產品成本,有許多廠家,閥門出口不配備安全保護帽。
        (3) Protective caps must be installed on the valve outlets of all fire-extinguishing agent vessels in gas fire extinguishing systems, so that even if the fire extinguishing agent cylinders are started by error during production, transportation, loading/unloading, installation and debugging, the safety of the operators can be protected. Many manufacturers do not equip valve outlets with protective caps in order to lower costs. 
        (4)各壓力容器鋼瓶上的容器閥應采用HPb59-1(Y)冷拉黃銅棒鍛壓成型,使容器閥材質呈流線流紋組織結構,密度增大。這不但增加了抗拉強度,還增強了韌性。容器閥受撞擊后不會斷裂。應絕不采用成本低廉的鑄造不銹鐵和碳鋼材料的瓶頭閥。消防閥門是氣體滅火系統產品*核心、*關鍵部件,關系到產品安全性和密封性兩大關鍵功能和性能,寧波三安制閥公司的消防閥門質量可靠,是生產消防閥門*專業廠家之一。
        (4) The valves of the pressure cylinders should be forged using the HPb59-1 (Y) cold-drawn brass rods, so that the valve material can have a streamline, or flow line structure with increased density. This not only enhances the tensile strength, but also the toughness of the material and the valves made from it do not break after sustaining impacts. It is strictly prohibited to use the cheap cast stainless iron and carbon steel to make cylinder valves. Fire protection valves are the core and the most critical part of gas fire extinguishing system products which affect the safety and the sealing, the most important performance and property of the product. The quality of the fire protection valves produced by Ningbo Sanan Valve Manufacture Co., Ltd. has been reliable and it is one of the most professional manufacturers of fire protection valves. 
        (5)嚴把氣體滅火零部件進廠、生產、成品出廠檢驗關,使用戶真正用的放心和安心。
        (5) We are very strict in our purchasing of parts and components and in our production and quality inspection before our gas fire extinguishing products are delivered to make sure that our users have confidence in and rest assured about the quality of our products. 
        2、密封性好,不泄漏,使用周期較長
        2. Good sealing, no leaking and long service life
        氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)所采用的零部件必須具有良好的密封性能和穩定的質量。應從以下幾點確保氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)密封良好和質量穩定。
        The parts and components used for the fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting) must have good sealing performance and stable quality. To ensure good sealing performance and stable quality of the products for the fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting), we must do the following: 
        (1)氣體滅火系統配套的滅火劑瓶組容器閥材質均應采用冷拉黃銅棒鍛壓成型,即使長時間存放也不易腐蝕生銹,且開啟靈活可靠。鍛壓后的銅質容器閥內部顯微組織結構晶體顆粒形狀細小,密度增大,滅火劑容器閥密封性能長久可靠。克服了使用低成本鑄造不銹鐵材質加工的容器閥,存在的因鑄件在冷卻過程中不同的凝固溫度和收縮率及雜質;內部和表面易出現一些細小的熱裂、疏松、氣孔等問題,容器閥密封性能差等重大缺陷。
        (1) All the valves of fire extinguishing agent cylinders for the gas fire extinguishing systems must be forged from cold-drawn brass rods to prevent corrosion and rusting, and ensure quick and reliable starting. After forging, the crystal particles in the internal microstructure of the copper valves become finer, increasing the density of the material and making the sealing of the valves of fire extinguishing agent vessels to last longer and more reliable. It overcomes the poor sealing and other serious defects of the cylinder valves made from the low-cost stainless iron due to fine heat cracks, loose structure and gas holes that appear inside and on the surface of the castings caused by impurity and difference in solidification temperatures and shrinkage during the cooling process. 
        (2)滅火劑瓶組容器閥密封口和各零部件連接處,建議采用徑向和端面雙密封結構,密封材料采用耐腐蝕、耐高溫材料,使密封性作用得到雙重保護。
        (2) It is advised to apply both radial and end-face sealing structures to the valve seals and the joints of the parts and components of the fire extinguishing agent cylinder groups, using sealing materials that are resistant to both corrosion and high temperatures to provide double protection to the sealing property.
        (3)滅火劑瓶組氣體滅火劑充裝工藝不同,滅火劑充裝工藝則可大大提升了滅火劑瓶組一次性氣密性試驗合格率達99%以上,有利于滅火劑儲瓶不易泄漏,存放周期長,并降低了用戶的維修成本和提高了用戶的安全保障。
        (3) Gas fire extinguishing agent filling techniques of agent cylinder groups are different and agent filling techniques can significantly enhance the agent cylinder groups’ one-time gas tightness test qualification rate to more than 99%, lowering changes of leakage, prolonging storage cycles, reducing users’ maintenance costs and improving safety guarantee for the users. 
        (4)應嚴把容器閥和滅火劑瓶組氣密性試驗關。充裝后的滅火劑瓶組整體應浸入清水中做氣密性試驗,應不少于兩次,每次試驗不應少于10分鐘,無任何一個氣泡泄漏為合格。這種浸入清水中檢測滅火劑瓶組密封性試驗,簡單、明了、可靠。目前許多氣體廠家不做此將滅火劑瓶組全部浸入水中做氣密性試驗,一般用刷子將肥皂液涂到閥門連接螺紋上,看這些部位是否冒氣泡,這種方式很難發現鋼瓶是否泄漏,密封性質量很難得到保證。
        (4) Gas tightness test must be very strict on cylinder valves and fire extinguishing agent cylinder groups. After filling the agent, the whole cylinder group has to be submerged in clear water for gas tightness test, twice at least, each time for no less than ten minutes. If no single bubble is seen leaked from the cylinder, it is considered to be qualified. This kind of gas tightness test by submerging a fire extinguishing agent cylinder group in clear water is simple, clear and reliable. Many gas fire extinguishing system manufacturers do no perform this kind of gas tightness test by submerging the whole cylinder groups under water. They normally brush some liquid soap on the screw threads where valves are connected to see if bubbles appear. It is hard to determine if a cylinder leaks using this kind of method and sealing of the cylinders can not be guaranteed in this way. 
        (5)氣體滅火系統壓力表前端應設計有壓力表開關結構,開啟壓力表開關應操作簡單、可靠,壓力表與壓力表連接螺紋應采用高強度、高精度、高密封性干式美制錐管螺紋,密封性能才能更加可靠。
        (5) A switch structure needs to be installed in front of the pressure gauge of the gas fire extinguishing system and the switch must be easy to operate and reliable. The threads connecting the pressure gauges must be high strength, high precision and highly sealed dry-seal NPT to ensure reliable sealing. 
        (6)高壓連接軟管一端連接滅火劑瓶組容器閥出口,另一端與集流管上的液流單向閥相連,起轉向連接,輸送滅火劑及減少氣體釋放時引起震動、沖擊作用。高壓連接軟管有兩種結構:一種是軟管兩端是鋼結構接頭,其中一個接頭是90°彎頭,撓性軟管部分在中間直管部分,該結構高壓連接軟管高度方向調節量很小,要求冷作焊接件滅火劑儲瓶框架高度加工精度高,連接難、費力。將造成連接密封性能差和振動大,滅火劑噴放時泄漏。另一種高壓連接軟管兩端是短距離的不銹鋼接頭,撓性軟管長度可在X、Y軸兩方向任意調節,連接快速、省力,連接密封性能好,整個氣體滅火系統設備振動小。
        (6) There are two kinds of structures for high pressure connecting hoses: one has steel structure joints on both ends of the hose, one of which has a 90°elbow, and the flexible hose is at the straight tube part in the middle. This structure allows very limited adjustment in the height direction of the connecting hose and demands high precision in cold work welding of the framework for the agent storage cylinder, which is very difficult and takes a lot of work and may lead to poor sealing and excessive vibration of the connecting parts and leak of the agent when it is released. The other kind of high pressure connecting hose has stainless steel joints on both ends with an only short distance between them. The length of the flexible hose can be adjusted freely in both X axis and Y axis directions and the connection is fast and easy with good leak-tight performance. The vibration of the whole gas fire extinguishing system equipment is limited. 
        (7)有管網氣體滅火系統啟動管道中,應安裝低壓安全泄漏閥,也叫低泄高封閥,防止氣體啟動裝置因慢泄漏而造成的系統誤啟動,有效的確保了產品質量。
        (7) A low pressure safety leak valve, or low leakage high sealing vale in another name, has to be installed in the starting pipe of the gas fire extinguishing system with a pipe network to prevent the gas starting device from activating the system by mistake due to slow leakage and effectively guarantee the quality of the product. 
        3、滅火性能好
        3. Good fire extinguishing performance 
        氣體滅火系統(氣體滅火設備)滅火性能好與壞,主要從滅火藥劑、滅火劑瓶組密封性與壓力值和系統設計方案參數正確與否三方面有關。滅火性能好與壞*關鍵是杜絕使用不合格滅火藥劑,絕不短斤少兩。氣體廠家、工程商、用戶應一同監督檢查,下面對滅火藥劑闡述嚴格把關措施:
        To judge the fire extinguishing performance of a gas fire extinguishing system (gas fire extinguishing equipment), we have to take into account the quality and sufficiency of the fire extinguishing agent, the leak-tight property and the pressure level of the agent cylinder group and if the system’s design parameters are correct. The key to judge if the fire-extinguishing performance is good or not is if the agent is qualified and if there is no shortage in quantity. Gas suppliers, engineering service providers and the users should perform joint supervision and inspection and take the following measures to ensure the quality of fire extinguishing agents:  
        (a)杜絕使用不合格滅火藥劑。滅火系統*容易弄虛作假的滅火藥劑主要是七氟丙烷和ABC超細干粉兩種。
        (a) Strict prohibition of the use of unqualified fire extinguishing agents. In the fire extinguishing system, HFC-227ea and ABC superfine dry powder are the two kinds of agents most likely to involve cheating. 
        七氟丙烷滅火藥劑單價每年隨市場變化非常大,單價一般為60~150元/kg滅火藥劑成本將占到整個滅火系統總造價的50%~75%。七氟丙烷滅火藥劑弄虛作假的主要手段是:用水或其它液體或固體代替,或收購市場上純度不高的七氟丙烷滅火藥劑。
        Unit price of HFC-227ea fire extinguishing agent varies greatly every year along with changes in the market, mostly between 60~150 yuan/kg, accounting for 50% to 70% of the total manufacturing cost of the whole fire extinguishing system. Main ways to cheat with HFC-227ea agents include: using water or other liquids or solids instead, or using lower purity HFC-227ea agents purchased in the market. 
           ABC超細干粉滅火劑一般用于普通BC或普通ABC干粉滅火劑代替,藥劑單價相差4倍以上。ABC超細干粉滅火劑設計滅火濃度為0.13kg/m3,而普通干粉設計滅火濃度為0.65kg/m3,相差5倍左右。
        ABC superfine dry powder fire extinguishing agent is usually replaced with regular BC or regular ABC dry power agents, the unit prices of which can vary by more than four times. Designed fire extinguishing concentration of ABC superfine dry powder agent is 0.13kg/m3, while designed fire extinguishing concentration of regular dry powder is 0.65kg/m3 with a difference of around five times.  
           措施如下:要求廠家提供該產品3C證書,發貨前到廠家隨機抽檢滅火劑瓶組內滅火藥劑,并在廠家現場檢測純度、含量。
        Measures to take: demanding manufacturers to provide 3C certificates of their products, and making a trip to the manufacturer’s place before it delivers the products and making random sampling of the fire extinguishing agent inside the cylinder groups on the purity and quantity in the presence of the manufacturer.
        (b)杜絕滅火藥劑缺斤少兩。氣體滅火系統中,一般是七氟丙烷滅火藥劑缺斤少兩。一般弄虛作假方法有:①少充裝滅火藥劑,產品銘牌上標稱重量大于實際充裝重量;②驅動氣體氮氣重量代替七氟丙烷滅火藥劑重量。
        (b) Prohibition of shortage of quantity of fire extinguishing agent. In the fire extinguishing system, the HFC-227ea agent is usually the one to involve shortage of quantity. Ways of cheating include: (1) filling less-than-stipulated amount of agent into the cylinder, while the weight of the agent provided on the product plate is larger than the actual weight of the agent filled into the cylinder; (2) adding more nitrogen gas, the propellant to replace part of the weight of HFC-227ea.
         七氟丙烷滅火劑儲瓶總重量由三部分組成:一是空瓶部件為W1,空瓶部件由閥門、虹吸管、鋼瓶組成;二是七氟丙烷滅火藥劑充裝重量為W2,該每瓶組滅火藥劑重量是由保護對象屬性、防護區體積和該系統總瓶組數量計算的;三是七氟丙烷滅火藥劑的驅動氣體-氮氣重量為W3,計算公式為:W=W1+W2+W3。柜式七氟丙烷氣體滅火裝置(也叫七氟丙烷預制滅火系統),每瓶組氮氣重量一般占充裝七氟丙烷滅火藥劑總重量的1%~3.7%,有管網七氟丙烷氣體滅火系統,每瓶組氮氣重量一般占充裝七氟丙烷藥劑總重量的4.4%~7.1%.
        The total weight of an HFC-227ea fire extinguishing agent storage cylinder consists three parts: 1. the weight of the empty cylinder and the parts W1, including the valve, the siphon and the steel cylinder; 2. the weight of the HFC-227ea fire extinguishing agent filled into the cylinder W2. The weight of fire extinguishing agent of a cylinder group is determined by the natural of the protected object, the size of the protected space and the total number of cylinder groups of the system; 3. the weight of nitrogen gas, the propellant gas for HFC-227ea agent W3, the calculation formula is: W=W1+W2+W3. The cabinet HFC-227ea gas extinguishing device is also called HFC-227ea pre-engineered extinguishing system, the nitrogen gas in which is normally 1% to 3.7% of the total weight of the HFC-227ea filled in the cylinder group, while in an HFC-227ea gas extinguishing system with pipe networks, nitrogen is usually 4.4% to 7.1% of the total weight of HFC-227ea filled in the cylinder group. 
        柜式七氟丙烷氣體滅火裝置中主要常用空瓶部件40、70、90、120、150升重量,分別為44、59、71、87、112Kg左右。有管網七氟丙烷氣體滅火系統中主要常用空瓶部件70、90、120、150升重量,分別為68、81、100、120Kg左右。提供上述七氟丙烷滅火劑空瓶部件重量,有利于工程商、用戶、監理、檢測驗收單位監督檢測稱重時,參考使用。
        The often-used 40, 70, 90, 120 and 150-liter empty cylinders in cabinet HFC-227ea gas extinguishing devices weigh around 44, 59, 71, 87 and 112 kilograms respectively. The often-used 70, 90, 120 and 150-liter empty cylinders in HFC-227ea gas extinguishing equipment with pipe network weigh around 68, 81, 100, and 120 kilograms respectively. We provide the weights of the empty HFC-227ea fire extinguishing agent cylinders for the purpose of providing reference for engineering service providers, users, supervisors and inspection and accepting units in their weighing and checking.  
        措施如下:發貨前到廠家或項目安裝現場瓶組間,隨機抽檢1~3瓶滅火劑瓶組,檢測總重量;檢測該瓶組是否處于密封性完好,無泄漏現象;若稱重滅火劑瓶組總重量不夠,說明氣體廠家少充裝或經營者(工程商)修改了產品銘牌上標稱重量,并不是氣體滅火劑泄漏了。分別列出隨機抽檢滅火劑瓶組,空瓶部件重量(廠家提供和參考本文章中重量)、滅火藥劑重量(對照設計院設計圖紙重量)、驅動氣體氮氣重量,計算出該瓶組七氟丙烷滅火藥劑實際充裝重量。
        Measures to take: before the manufacturer delivers the products, go to the location of the manufacturer, or to the cylinder group room at project’s installation site and make random sampling of one to three fire extinguishing agent cylinder groups and check their total weights; check if the cylinder groups are stilled perfectly sealed with no sign of any leaking; if the total weight of a fire extinguishing agent cylinder group is below standard, it means the gas manufacturer has failed to fill enough gas into the cylinder, or the dealer (or engineering service provider) has changed the weight provided on the product plate, and not because there is leakage of the agent. Based on the result of the random sampling of fire extinguishing agent cylinder groups, list the weights of the empty cylinders (vs the weights provided by the manufacturer and the weight provided above), the weights of fire extinguishing agents (vs the weights provided on the drawings made by the design institute, the weights of propellant nitrogen gas, calculate based on the above information and find out the actual weight of HFC-227ea fire extinguishing agent fill into the cylinder group.  
         例:抽檢有管網七氟丙烷氣體滅火系統150升瓶組一瓶,計算該瓶組七氟丙烷滅火藥劑實際充裝重量。
        For example: sample-checking one of the cylinders of an 150-liter-cylinder group of a HFC-227ea gas extinguishing system with pipe network to find out the actual weight of HFC-227ea filled into this cylinder group. 
          檢測與計算如下:
        (1)檢測150升瓶組密封性,無泄漏;
        (2)稱150升瓶組重量,若為W=256.6Kg;
        (3)檢查該瓶組銘牌標稱重量和設計院設計重量是否一致;
        (4)檢查該瓶組銘牌標稱重量表示七氟丙烷藥劑充裝重量:122Kg,瓶組總重量:256.5Kg;
        (5)計算七氟丙烷滅火藥劑充裝重量首先依據廠家提供150升空瓶部件重量或參考本文章中150升空瓶部件重量W1=128.6kg;藥劑W2與氮氣W3重量為(256.6-128.6=128Kg,則氮氣重量為W3=256.6-128.6-122=6Kg,氮氣重量占七氟丙烷滅火劑重量的(6/122×100%)=4.9%,該氮氣比例符合本文要求。七氟丙烷滅火藥劑實際充裝重為122Kg,符合規定要求。
        The following are the checks and calculations: 
        (1) Check the sealing property of the 150-liter-cylinder group and make sure there is no leaking; 
        (2) Weigh the 150-liter-cylinder group, and if W=256.6Kg, 
        (3) Check if the weight provided on the product plate of the cylinder group is the same as the one designated by the design institute; 
        (4) Check the plate on the cylinder group to see if the weight of HFC-227ea filled into the cylinder is 122kg and the total weight of the cylinder group is 256.5kg;  
        (5) The calculation of the weight of the HFC-227ea agent filled in the cylinder should be based on the weight of the 150-liter empty cylinder provided by the manufacturer, or in reference to the weight of the 150-liter empty cylinder provided above: W1=128.6kg; the weight of the agent W2 =256.6-128.6=128kg, while the weight of nitrogen gas W3=256.6-128.6-122=6kg, and nitrogen gas account for (6/122×100%=) 4.9% of the weight of HFC-227ea, which conforms to the required rate provided above. The actual weight of HFC-227ea fire extinguishing agent filled in the cylinder is 122 kg, conforming to the required standard. 
        4、抗振動性和耐高、低溫
        4. Vibration and high/low temperature resistance 
        氣體滅火系統產品出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)要求氣體滅火系統各零部件具有良好的抗振動性能和耐高低溫。能經受住海、陸、空立體運輸的長途跋涉,不會因運輸途中的風浪、顛簸、高低溫氣象條件等造成設備的泄漏或誤啟動。氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口)所有零部件均應采用抗震動設計,特別是滅火劑瓶組容器閥采用雙密封臥式壓差式結構,該容器閥有兩個氣室,閥體內安裝一活塞閥瓣,靠閥體內氣壓自動密封,需安裝專用啟動氣缸和頂針部件,刺破容器閥啟動氣室密封膜片,方能開啟滅火劑瓶組容器閥。該閥外表無任何開啟手柄等零件,此結構容器閥*大特點是:抗碰撞、抗振動、耐+70℃高溫和-30℃低溫。確保了滅火劑不會因振動及高低溫變化而泄漏和誤啟動。
        All parts and components of the products for the gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short) should have good vibration resistance and high and low temperature resistance, can tolerance the long-distance trek of the three-dimensional transportation of sea, land and air and will not cause leakage or mis-initiation of equipment due to wind, waves, bumps, high and low temperature meteorological conditions during transportation. All parts and components of the products for the gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting for short) should be designed to resist vibrations, particularly the valves of the agent cylinder groups should adopt the double sealing horizontal pressure-gradient structure that has two air chambers, and a piston disc is installed inside the valve body that seals automatically thanks to the air pressure inside the valve body. A special starting cylinder and an ejector pin have to be installed to pierce the diaphragm seal of the air chamber of the cylinder valve in order to open the cylinder valve of the cylinder group. The valve does not have any opening handle or other prats. The most important feature of this kind of cylinder valve is that it is collision and vibration resistant and can withstand temperatures as high as +70℃ and as low as -30℃. This can ensure that vibrations and temperature changes will not lead to the leakage of fire extinguishing agent and the cylinder can not be accidentally activated.
        5、包裝
        5. Packaging 
        氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)對產品的包裝都有嚴格的要求。氣體滅火系統各零部件應采用包裝箱包裝,包裝時至少應做到以下幾點:
        The gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called the gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short) has strict requirement on the packaging of the products. All parts and components of gas fire extinguishing systems have to be packaged in boxes, and the packaging has to comfort to the following: 
        (1)、包裝箱應采用出口包裝箱,又名:出口木包裝箱,出口木箱,膠合板箱,免熏蒸包裝箱等。優良不能采用普通的木包裝箱,不然無法通關。
        (1) Export packing boxes, also called export wooden packing boxes, export wooden boxes, plywood boxes, fumigation-free packaging boxes should be used for packaging, and it is absolutely prohibited to use the ordinary wooden packaging boxes, or the products will not be cleared by the customs.  
        (2)、包裝箱上的嘜頭應包含以下內容:
        ①收貨人或買方名稱的英文縮寫字母或簡稱; 
        ②參考號,如運單號、訂單號或發票號; 
        ③目的地名稱; 
        ④貨物件數。
        (2) The shipping mark on the packing boxes must include the following information: 
        ① Abbreviated or short form of the name of the consignee or buyer;          ② Reference Number, e.g. waybill number, order number or invoice number;  
        ③ Place of destination:  
        ④ Number of packages. 
        (3)、包裝箱應進行防潮處理,在包裝箱的內壁應裝訂防潮膜,并放置一定數量的干燥劑。
        (3) Packing boxes must undergo damp-proof treatment by applying moisture-proof films on the inner walls of the boxes and placing certain quantity of desiccant inside.  
        (4)、包裝箱應做防碰撞處理,在包裝箱的內壁放置防碰撞塑料發泡板,箱內各零部件應擺放整齊,各零部件之間應采用塑料發泡板隔離、塞緊。每一個滅火劑瓶組應用2~3根打包帶固定在包裝箱底部上,防止運輸過程中滾動和碰撞。
        (4)Packing boxes must undergo shock-proof treatment by applying shock-absorbing foamed plastic boards on the internal walls of the boxes, and all parts and components inside the boxes must be placed orderly, separated from each other with foamed plastic boards and make sure all empty spaces are filled with foamed plastics. Each agent cylinder group must be fixed at the bottom of the packing boxes with two to three packing straps to prevent it from rolling or bumping during shipping. 
        (5)、每個包裝箱內應放置產品裝箱單,注明箱內零部件名稱、規格型號、數量等。
        (5)A packing list should be placed inside each boxes, with information including names of the parts and components inside the box, and their models, specifications and numbers, etc.  
        (6)、每個包裝箱底部應有托架,以方便裝車與轉運。
        (6) There must be a pallet below each packing box for the convenience of loading and transshipping. 
        (7)、對于鋼管等不能采用包裝箱包裝的超長零部件,可以采用碼垛的方式進行包裝。堆碼一定要規則、整齊,底部應有托架,方便叉車等搬運設備轉運,每隔2米左右用鋼帶打包固定,防止鋼管散掉。
        (7) Steel pipes and other overlength parts that can not be packed inside the boxes can be packed by stacking orderly and regularly on a pallet for the convenience of transporting with forklifts and other vehicles. The stacks must be strapped and fixed with steel bands every two meters or so to prevent the steel pipe stacks from getting loose and collapse. 
        6、現場無需加工制造、安裝簡單、快捷
        6. Easy and speedy installation with no need for on-the-spot processing 
          氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)因產品在國外安裝,現場不具備加工條件,要求所有的零部件必須在出廠時全部加工完成,不允許現場組裝時進行二次加工。氣體滅火系統中各啟動裝置至各滅火劑瓶組之間的啟動管道,建議設計采用較高成本的一根不銹鋼金屬軟管,代替目前國內大多數廠家采用的低成本DN4~6㎜紫銅管。如采用DN4~6㎜紫銅管,需依據現場實際結構使用專用工具進行裁剪、折彎、擴孔等加工后,才能成為啟動管道,也要求現場安裝技術工人進行專門培訓和實踐才能完成。不銹鋼金屬銅管代替DN4~6紫銅管,現場無需加工,(目前國內只有北京利達海鑫公司率先使用。該公司宗旨是“一切為了用戶著想”)。此舉雖然增加了氣體生產制造廠家的成本,但避免了采用紫銅管需現場加工的麻煩,實現了系統所有零部件無現場加工,降低了安裝施工技術人員專業技術水平,使系統安裝更加簡單、方便、快捷、并提高安裝效率四倍以上,可大幅降低施工現場安裝成本,使滅火系統啟動管路密封性能得到了可靠保證。
        As the products involved in the gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting, or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short) are to be installed abroad, where conditions mostly do not allow to perform on-the-spot processing, it is required that all the parts and components should finish processing before being delivered and it is not allowed to conduct secondary processing on the installation site. It is advised to make the starting pipes between the starting devices and the cylinder groups of the fire extinguishing systems with the relatively costly stainless steel flexible metal pipes instead of the lower-cost DN4~6mm copper pipes that are used now by most domestic manufacturers in China, because if DN4~6mm copper pipes are used, we have to tailor, cut, bend and enlarge the opening of the copper pipes on-site using special tools and according to the actual conditions before being able to start the pipes. The on-site installation technical workers also need special training and practices before being able the do the work. If we replace the DN4~6mm copper pipes with stainless steel metal pipes, no on-site processing will be needed anymore. (So far, Beijing Leader Haixin is the only company in China to apply this method and “Customer Centricity” is the principle of this company). Although it increases some cost for the manufacturer, it avoids the hassle of on-site processing if copper pipes are used and realizes zero on-the-spot processing for the system, lowering the professional and technical demand for the installation workers and making the installation simpler, faster and more convenient, raising the installation efficiency by more than four times, greatly reducing the installation cost and ensuring more reliable sealing performance of the starting pipes of the fire extinguishing system.  
        7、可根據資料、圖紙現場安裝,無需廠家派人現場指導
        7. Installation can be performed according to provided materials and drawings without the need for on-site instruction by technicians sent by the manufacturer 
          氣體滅火系統產品出口“一帶一路”項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)安裝在國外進行,應能實現可根據資料、圖紙現場安裝,無需氣體廠家派技術人員現場指導,以節省安裝時間和人員出國的費用。氣體滅火系統產品出口項目(也叫氣體滅火系統出口項目簡稱氣體滅火系統出口或氣體滅火設備出口)應根據每個項目繪制詳細的系統安裝圖、瓶組間設備安裝圖。建議在產品出廠前,對瓶組間設備在工廠內進行了實際安裝,將安裝過程拍攝成圖片和錄像存檔,并依據組裝順序,制作專門的安裝幻燈片資料。這些資料和圖紙在出廠時隨機提供給用戶,真正做到“傻瓜式”安裝或兒童按圖“積木式”拼裝氣體滅火系統各零部件,實際安裝時再也不用派人去現場指導了。即使有問題,也可通過微信、現場視頻、電話溝通解決。
        As the installations of the gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road exporting project (also called gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting, or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short) are made in foreign countries, it is better that installations can be done according to the provided materials and drawings, without the need of on-site instructions by technicians sent by the manufacturer to save the time for installation and costs of sending people abroad. The gas fire extinguishing system product exporting project (also called the gas fire extinguishing system exporting project, or gas fire extinguishing system exporting or gas fire extinguishing equipment exporting for short) should prepare detailed system installation and cylinder group room equipment installation drawings for each and every project. It is advised to perform actual installation of the cylinder group room equipment inside the manufacturing plant before delivering the products, video-record and take photos of the installation process and make special slides according to the order of the installation. These documents and drawings will be provided to the users along with the products, and make sure that users can assemble the parts and components of the fire extinguishing system very easily like children build blocks according to drawings, and the manufacturer will not need to send technicians to provide on-site instructions. If there is still any problem, they can communicate with the manufacturer through WeChat, real-time video and telephone conversation to solve the difficulties.   
        8、經營者責任
        8. Responsibilities of the dealers 
          以上向生產企業闡述了確保氣體滅火系統產品“一帶一路”項目的安全、密封、滅火性能主要的的技術要求與措施。氣體滅火系統產品和滅火藥劑質量、重量弄虛作假等現象,有生產企業行為,也有經營者(工程商)要求生產企業一起合伙作假,可能還有經營者(工程商)獨自**行為,大家均應自律,用戶、經營者應選擇誠信好的品牌氣體生產企業。希望長春長生疫苗事件不要在某氣體消防生產企業和某經營者(工程商)及消防行業出現。下面闡述一下經營者的責任。目前,仍有部分經營者和工程商明知生產者或生產企業生產不合格的產品,危及人身、財產安全、仍繼續采用,認為只要采用有合格生產許可證企業的產品,若出事故完全由生產者或生產企業全部承擔責任。依據我國有關法律法規和《中華人民共和國消費者權益保護法》中第三章經營者義務有關條款規定,經營者應當保證其提供的商品或服務符合保障人身、財產安全要求。發現提供的商品或服務存在缺陷,有危及人身、財產安全危險的,應立即向有關行政部門報告,并停止銷售、召回,并承擔用戶或消費者因商品被召回支出的必要費用。用戶或消費者因購買經營者不合法產品受到損害的,可以向經營者要求賠償。
        With the above, we have elaborated to the manufacturers the main technical requirements and measures to ensure safety, sealing and fire extinguishing performance of the gas fire extinguishing system product “Belt and Road” projects. Cheating in the quality and quantity of gas fire extinguishing system products and fire extinguishing agents can be the behavior of the manufacturers. Sometimes, it is done under the requirement of the dealers (engineering service providers). On other occasions, it is done independently by the dealers (engineering service providers). We urge that all parties must discipline themselves and users and dealers should choose brand name products from manufacturers with good reputations. We hope that the Changchun Changsheng vaccine incident never happens to gas fire extinguishing product manufacturers and dealers (engineering service providers), or in the fire protection sector. Hereinafter, I would like to elaborate on the responsibilities of the dealers. Currently, there are still some dealers and engineering service providers who know that some producers or manufacturers are producing unqualified products that threaten the personal and property safety of the people, yet they still continue to use those substandard products, thinking that even if any accident happens, the responsibilities are all on the producers or manufacturers that have legitimate production permits. According to the relevant laws and regulations of China and the relevant provisions in Chapter 3 Operator's Obligations of the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests, the operator shall ensure that the goods or services provided are in compliance with the requirements for the protection of personal and property safety. If it is found that the goods or services provided are defective, and there is a danger to personal or property safety, it shall immediately report to the relevant administrative department, stop selling, recall, and bear the necessary expenses arising from the product recall for the user or consumer. If any loss incurred by purchasing the illegal product from the operators by the user or the consumer, the operator may be required to pay compensation.
        為了確保人民生命財產安全,用戶、經營者(工程商)、生產企業應共同遵紀守法,不使用不合格產品和弄虛作假,為保護用戶或消費者的生命財產安全和合法權益,維護社會經濟秩序,促進市場經濟健康發展,大家有責任共同做出自己的貢獻。
        To ensure the personal and property safety of the people, users, dealers (engineering service providers) and production enterprises all have obligations to abide by the laws, do not use unqualified products or perform cheating, and do their respective contributions to protect the personal and property safety of the users or consumers, maintain social and economic order, and promote the healthy development of the market economy.
        結稿日期:2018-7-28;修訂日期:2018-08-05
        作者地址:北京市北京經濟技術開發區榮京東街17號北京利達海鑫公司
        作者郵編:100176    電話:13910793712
        Finished on: July 28, 2018; Revised on: Aug. 5, 2018
        Author’s address: Beijing Leader Haixin Company, 17 Rongjing Dongjie, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, Beijing 
        Postcode: 100176    Tel: 13910793712
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        Note: The copyright of this article and its contents belongs to Zhu Jinwu. No organization or individual is allowed to hotlink or reprint without the author’s consent. In case of need to reprint or quote the article, please specify the author’s name and the name of his organization. Violators of the above will be held accountable according to the law. 


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